Chapter 14

Biodiesel Production (pp. 251-262)
Authors:  (Oscar Marin-Flores, Anna Lee Tonkovich and Yong Wang, Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, USA, and others)
Biodiesel has attracted a great deal of attention due to not only its environmental
benefits but also the fact that it is made from renewable resources. However, the cost of
production of biodiesel still appears to be prohibitive which makes it commercially
unviable. Some of the solutions proposed to overcome this drawback involve the use of
waste cooking oils as raw material, the implementation of continuous transesterification
processes and the recovery of high quality glycerol as by-product. The feedstock used
defines whether the synthesized biodiesel is of first, second or third generation. The most
widely used method to produce biodiesel is the transesterification of vegetable oils and
animal fats. The rates of transesterification appear to be affected by certain variables such
as molar ratio of glycerides to alcohol, catalysts, reaction temperature, reaction time and
free fatty acids and water content of oils or fats. The mechanism and kinetics of the
transesterification are analyzed in the present article to show how the reaction occurs and
progresses with time.
any percentage, which is represented by a number following a B. Thus, B10 is 10 percent
biodiesel with 90 percent petroleum, or B100 is 100 percent biodiesel, with no petroleum
addition [1].