Chapter 21

Bioprocessing: The Use of Thermophilic and Anaerobic Bacteria (pp. 385-406)
Authors:  (Jing-Rong Cheng and Ming-Jun Zhu, School of Bioscience and Bioengineering, South China University of Technology, Guangdong Province, P.R. China)
Lignocellulosic waste is the most cost-effective raw material for producing highvalue
products, especially biofuel, by fermentation, which can be expected to ameliorate
many problems associated with the consumption of petroleum–based fuels and gas
pollution. The main obstacle to the utilization of lignocellulosic feedstocks for fuel
production is the cost, and consolidated bioprocessing (a direct fermentation of
lignocellulosic feedstocks by microorganisms), a new bioenergy-generating technology,
can contribute to it. The present review is aimed at summarizing both the bottlenecks and
innovative strategies employed in biodegrading lignocellulosic feedstocks with kinds of
thermophilic and anaerobic bacteria. Moreover, co-culture of microorganisms, a
promising technology to degrade lignocellulosic biomass into clean and affordable
renewable energies has been discussed. The microbial consortium provides a valuable
platform for further study on interactions between multi-microbial species, and has a
potential biotechnological application in lignocellulosic biomass degradation and
bioconversion for the promising biofuel.